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Y.Danilovsky, PhD. (Eng.), TRIZ Master, S. Ikovenko, PhD., TRIZ Master, Min Gyu Lee, KJ Jung, Sung Kim, Sahong Kim

Diagnostics and Training of the Inventive Thinking Level based on the Reference Book on Disadvantages.



The present work singles out three specialized criteria of creativity, which are necessary for successful performance of innovation projects, which don't coincide with traditional criteria for measuring the creativity level in the existing and practically used tests of Gilford (1) and Torrents (2).

These kinds of creativity, according to the practical experience of the authors, are based on the ability of the executor to recognize

  1. identical generalized functions ( glossary Gen3 :ID reference source -3) ,
  2. identical disadvantages and
  3. identical scenarios of Engineering systems evolution in keeping with identified trends or “Trends of Engineering systems Evolution” (3-7).

The present work demonstrates the principle role of the notion of “Disadvantage” among the classical TRIZ tools for the generation of ideas (Engineering Contradiction, Physical Contradiction and Ideal Final Result – acronyms EC, PC and IFR accordingly) and modern methods for analysis of source situation for innovative design –  Functional Analysis (FA), Cause Effect Chain Analysis (CECA)  and  Main Parameter of Value Analysis (MPV analysis) (3).

As a logical consequence of what was said by the authors above, a problem was stated for substantiating the platform for augmenting the tool of FOS (Function Oriented Search) (9-12)  with one more criterion for search for prototypes – similar Disadvantage. This tool was named Disadvantage Oriented Search (DOS).

In order to create the basis for a tool intended for new kinds of training sessions and measuring the creativity according to the criterion “ability to recognize similar disadvantages in different branches of technology” the definition of the notion “disadvantage” was refined in addition to the existing glossary (3) of terms and the architecture of an electronic database for performing the training and testing sessions was developed.


Key words: “disadvantage” , “function of engineering systems”, “Engineering and Physical contradictions”, “Development of Creative Imagination”,  “Function-oriented Search”,  “development of creativity”, “tests on creativity measuring”.


Main issues analyzed in the present work:

Creativity of the performer of innovation projects is important for obtainment of high-quality results during the shortest possible periods of time. Traditional treatment of creativity, which is implied by the existing tests for creativity measuring, developed by Gilford  (1) or Torrents (2) is far from actual demands to the performer of innovation projects.

According to traditional definitions, creativity (15) is understood as creative capacities of the individual, which are characterized by the readiness for acceptance and creation of fundamentally new ideas, which deviate from traditional or conventional patterns of thinking and which are included with the structure of giftedness as an independent factor as well as the ability to solve problems, which occur inside the static systems.

Criteria for measuring creativity with the authors being criticized are characterized by the absence of motivation with the individual being tested and are separated from the practice of actual inventive thinking process in proposed exercises.  These tests measure “some creativity in general”.

This circumstance was the reason for detailed identifying of particular and specialized parameters of creativity, which are associated with fulfilling the tasks of innovative consulting and design, for example: improvement of consumer characteristics of existing goods, problem of circumvention of patents, decrease of the products cost, search for new fields of application for existing technologies, forecast of market development, etc.

Innovative consulting exists at the market for more than 35 years. For example, if we take the Russian market, the approximate date of its appearance could be the 80-ies of the last century, the time when the enterprises began to form distinct interest in the methods of Value engineering analysis and functional modeling developed by Miles (17). (See “Yu.Danilovsky “How the Profession of TRIZ Expert Was Formed      - source 16).

Thus, the age of the profession “innovative consultant”, amounting to 35 years, which is  a rather respectable age, is fully able to equip the researches in the field of engineering creativity methodology with the data on this or that degree of success and frequency of use of the developed methods and, respectively, on the required criteria of creativity.

 The analysis of practice of fulfilling the innovation projects, performed by the authors, shows that the role of method of analogy in the search for useful prototypes is rather high.

Method of analogy could be presented in the form of a simple mathematical formula:{ if A = B, B = C → A=C}. The criteria for comparison of objects could be as follows: 1. Similarityofgeneralizedfunctionswithdifferentobjects, 2. SimilarityofDisadvantageswithdifferentobjects  or 3. Similarity of objects in following the universal scenarios of engineering evolution, like Ideality, tendency to attain completeness of system components, and suchlike common models used for describing the evolution of engineering ( 2-6)

Function-oriented search (6,7,8) is responsible for the first criterion of similarity. Innovation discipline, which is called “Trends of Engineering Evolution” (the term “Trends of Engineering systems Evolution” and the corresponding acronym TESE are often used) is responsible for the third criterion.   

The use of the notion Disadvantage in classical TRIZ was equipped with such tools as Physical and Engineering contradictions (PC and EC) and corresponding algorithms and diagrams aimed at eliminating them.

  In fact, attentive study of designs of models both of PC and EC yields one important common feature -  these are two different mental structures, which are intended for describing Disadvantages. Both these models of description are two-component models: PC is a minimum/maximum model  (big – small), while TC is a Cause-and-Effect model,   if parameter A ↑→  J, but parameter B↓→  L & if parameter A ↓→ L, but  parameter B↑→ J.

Figure 1. shows the role of the notion Disadvantage in classical and modern innovation discipline, the more appropriate word for which would be not the Theory of Inventive Problem-solving, but  Theory of disadvantages, because the existence of basic modern analytical tools - Functional Analysis (FA), Cause Effect Chain Analysis (CECA)  and  Main Parameter of Value (MPV analysis), as well as three most important models of creating mental formulae for the search of solutions associated with IFR, EC and PC are very closely connected with the notion of  Disadvantage.

Figure 1. The role of the notion Disadvantage in classical and modern TRIZ




Pay attention to the fact that the notion of Disadvantage is used in this or that way in all models for generation of ideas, which are proposed for analysis – formulation of IFR, EC and PC.

At the same time the principle task of functional modeling is the identification and recording of the complete list of disadvantages of the analyzed system.

The task of Cause Effect Chain Analysis (CECA) is the identification of latent reasons of identified Disadvantages   (the term – “key problems” according to glossary 3). It means that once again we are talking about Disadvantages.

Main Parameters of Value (MPV) analysis is a rather young tool, which won high reputation with the clients because of the results achieved using it, - describes the advantages of the systems (goods, which are being improved) using the language of parameters exactly to use the word Disadvantage as applied to a long distance between the existing current value of important parameters characterizing the goods of the Client and the parameters of goods characterized by the same function, but offered by other participants of this market.


The already formed mental tradition for describing the disadvantages is the use of models of IFR, EC and PC, however, it would be more comfortable to use the description of the Disadvantage in arbitrary form as one component, but in this case, as it might seem, all heuristic methodologies would disappear, which formed the basis for mental formulae of IFR, EC and PC.  

Could we use a simpler one-component form of analysis of identified disadvantage and at the same time get an heuristic result?  From the viewpoint of the authors of the present article I t is quit possible, if:

A) We use the logical shell of the method of function-Oriented Search, however, the criterion for comparing the objects in the course of search for useful prototypes will be disadvantage, not the function.

B) We establish (using empirical methods) the connections between typical disadvantages and most appropriate trends of engineering evolution in the form of typical, quite predictable reactions of designers to these disadvantages, which are often encountered. For example, is the Disadvantage formulated like “excessively large size of the system”? – Let us use the trend “increase of system dynamicity” and let us make this engineering object foldable or inflatable. Is the number of useful functions low? – Let us use the formulae of increase of Ideality, etc…


Let us analyze in greater detail the scenario А and draw a conclusion, if we could use the logics of FOS (function-oriented search) for the search of useful prototypes.



Fig 2. Similarity of Disadvantages of systems from different fields of engineering provides for appearance of solutions, which are identical in terms of meaning, however, the functions of prototypes don’t coincide.




The numbering used in the left column of the drawing is taken from the classification system and database of disadvantages, which is given below.   

In fact, the analysis of this drawing shows that the Disadvantage “Big dimensions in keeping”  (first series of examples)  is easily eliminated through the formulae for increase of ES dynamicity.

Figure 3 “Diagram of Trend for ES Dynamicity Increase”




Disadvantage “Low rate of processes performance” – second series of examples is easily eliminated through the model of the trend “Increase of Completeness of ES Components”

Figure 4 “Diagram of Trend for Increase of Completeness of ES Components”



Disadvantage “few additional functions” is the third series of examples in figure 2 is eliminated through different mechanisms for increase of Ideality. In this case it is done through scenario А.

Figure 5 “Diagrams of Trend for Increasing ES Ideality”



I would like to attract the attention of the readers to the following: the functions used in all identical solutions of the quoted example are fairly different, according to classifier from the software on FOS developed by the Company Gen3 Korea Innovation Consulting Ltd

Figure 6 “The Diagram for Defining Generalized functions of ES as Applied to Substances, Fields and Information”



The practice of performing innovative projects constantly poses one and the same question: what is necessary for the inventor to see within the frame of using the method of analogy in search for useful prototypes for forming the ideas? Here are short answers to this question based on the empirical experience of the authors:

·         It is necessary to be able to see similar functions,

·         It is necessary to be able to see similar Disadvantages, PC and EC, because they are also disadvantages.

·         It is necessary to be able to see similar scenarios of evolution in different areas of engineering.

 How can one train the habits of recognizing similar Disadvantages in different areas of engineering, consider it to be one of important components of creativity in general, as applied to the notion of “inventive thinking”? What is the way to measure the input level of creativity according to the criteria “ability to recognize similar disadvantages in different fields of engineering”? Thus, the main problems in the performed research work were formulated.

Problems, which are being solved in research work:

Analysis of modern treatment of the notion «Disadvantage»  in its terminological aspect. Criticism of existing definitions of the notion «Disadvantage». Selection of the definition of the notion “Disadvantage”, which would be more  constructive and to a greater extent oriented at the practice of performing innovative projects and the role of this notion in the general nalysis of resources of existing system.

The present work is based on the assertion, which is taken from the main content of the logics of ARIZ 85 В, which is rendered by the author in simplified transcription:

– “people develop ES in the direction of eliminating the disadvantages (D), which are found with ES,  using such resources thereby, which are most accessible at the present moment”.

It is possible to add that the identified Disadvantage or the Disadvantage, which is understood by somebody, could be called the main logical reason and the locomotive force of engineering evolution.

Disadvantage  is a category necessary for creating inventions, which is of equal importance as the Engineering Contradiction (EC). EC is a special cause/effect form of describing D.

By way of developing this assertion a short terminological research was performed on the topic of D. In Glossary ( 3) of the company “Algorithm” the following terms were found:

Key Disadvantage: Disadvantage, which has to be eliminated in order to achieve the goals of the project. Usually Key Disadvantages appear at the very beginning of Cause/Effect Chains of Disadvantages or near to it.

Disadvantage of the flow: Disadvantage of the analyzed Engineering System, identified in the course of Flow analysis. To such disadvantages relate, for example, “Bottlenecks”, “Grey zones”, "Stagnation zones", etc.

Disadvantage, which is a consequence of another disadvantage: Disadvantage in Cause/Effect Chain of disadvantages, which is directly associated with the given disadvantage.

 Unfortunately, none of the definitions explains the meaning of the phenomenon Disadvantage, therefore the authors made an attempt to formulate a new definition, which is appropriate for creating a theoretical foundation of a new tool enabling to search for solutions using the method of analogy and training of inventive thinking within the logical shell of FOS (Function Oriented Search), however with the criterion – “Similar Disadvantage”.

This tool got the operating name of Disadvantage Oriented Search (DOS).


In order to create the basis for the tool new definition of the notion Disadvantage was developed in addition to the existing Glossary of terms.

Disadvantage is a subjective/objective category of judgments of the humans intended for definition, substantiation and refinement of claims to the existing system, marketable goods or technology.  Disadvantage is an objective category, if the claim is expressed at the level of describing parameters of technical characteristics of the object and relates to the category of realistic ones, i.e., the D being described stays in the zone of realistic opportunities to eliminate it. Disadvantage  as a subjective category can also be expressed through parameters. Disadvantage is a subjective category, if the claim is formulated by different people and the negative evaluation of the analyzed parameters is dictated exclusively by their personal preferences.  

Examples of D (objective type)

Foldable umbrella requires the use of two hands for folding it. Disadvantage  is excessive number of movements of hands (parameter: energy). It is easy to agree with the fact that it would be more convenient to use one hand both for opening the umbrella and for closing it, because it could happen that I have a bag in the other hand.

 Examples of D (subjective type)

Foldable umbrella has black color (color is also a parameter). This is a Disadvantage, because I dislike black color, preferring red.

Example  ofunrealisticD

It dissatisfies me that the umbrella has weight (the weight is also a parameter, however it is impossible to eliminate the weight of such an object as an umbrella and can mean only that you are not going to leave the house or the car, when it is raining).


In order to create the methodology of DOS a new classification system was developed embracing the main resources of engineering evolution:

Substance, field, space, time, information (demand, value). The “Disadvantage” identified in an Engineering System (hereinafter referred to as D) is used as an input parameter for proposed methodology and is defined as a subjective/objective fundamental reason for changes within engineering systems (inventions). 

In the course of work several hundred ES were analyzed, these systems containing such D, which succumbed to being presented in the form of 36 generalized typical D.  

The results of these studies are presented in the present work in the form of matrices as a special table 6х6.

     A version of an electronic reference book on Disadvantages is presented below. This reference book is intended describing the operation of different engineering systems within the scope of approach “Disadvantage Oriented Search (DOS)”, which we propose to use as a training tool for developing creativity as part of the course of DCT (development of Creative Thinking).


The structure of the diagram 6Х6 is subject to the classification of resources in the practice of performing the projects by the company Gen3 Korea Innovation Consulting Ltd, namely: Substance, Field, Space, Time, Information on typical preferances of the clients regarding the choice of marketable goods (Need) and the information concerning the typical problems associated with expenditures (cost).



Рисунок 7 Диаграмма  ресурсных исследований в инновационном проекте.


In a more detailed statement the diagram is used, which includes the main “prompts” from the trends of engineering development.


Figure 8. The Program of Resource Research




In every cell of resources classification systems we find the most popular tools from the system “Trends of engineering Evolution”.


Thus, we could classify the disadvantages according to their being associated with the main categories of resources, for example :

1.      Disadvantages, associated with the notion of “Substance”

2.      Disadvantages, associated with the notion of “Field” (energy)

3.      Disadvantages, associated with the notion of “Space” (shape and types of movements, which are performed in space)

4.      Disadvantages, associated with the notion of “Time” (rate of the processes)

5.      Typical preferences of the users – most popular scenarios of consumers’ behavior (Needs)  

6.      Disadvantages, associated with the cost of substances and different kinds of energy.


Figure  9. Disadvantages Classification System.




This classification system describes the meaning of six vertical columns of the diagram. The distribution of disadvantges according to the lines is performed based on the ideas of evolutionary character. We move downwards from above – from the disadvantages, which characterize the young systems of the first stage of evolution, according to  S-curve of the model of irregularity of engineering evolution to Disadvantages, which characterize the systems of third and fourth phases of evolution of marketable goods, i.e., “old ones”.


The classification system, which has been thus created, is a structure of the software for training the beginners in the field of inventive activities in the field of ability to see similar disadvantages in different areas of technology and to use these habits for finding useful prototypes according to the logics of FOS.


The described system of databases was published in a number of earlier works (1,2) and in the dissertation of Yu.Danilovsky dated 2010 and was intended for address input into recommendations of TESE as an architecture for a future software product in the field of generation of ideas. In this work we don’t analyze this option of using disadvantages classification system and place the emphasis with the ability of using a developed classification system for training the habits of recognizing similar disadvantages in different fields of engineering.

In the analyzed case this classification system is used in a different function, namely, for organizing training sessions aimed at recognizing similar disadvantages in the systems, which relate to different fields of industry. The person being tested gets 36 exercises with examples of identical disadvantages in different fields of industry. It is required from the person being tested to find at least ONE example of his/her own in each of 36 exercises.

Examples of exercises


Figure  10. Examples of exercises from the cell 1.4.


инструментальность предлагаемой разработки:

Инструментальность предложенного вида специфических тренингов в области РТВ  обеспечивается на уровне  примитивного программного продукта, который способен  измерить время  исполнения упражнений и количество  внесённых  примеров. Качество внесённых примеров  будет измеряться вручную на этом этапе развития софта. В представленной работе предложен вариант электронного справочника по недостаткам для  описания работы различных Технических Систем в рамках  подхода DisadvantageOrientedSearch (DOS).который предлагается использовать как тренажёр  для развития креативности по курсу РТВ  ( Развитие Творческого Воображения) .


Рисунок 12. внешний вид электронной базы данных для тренировок.


It is possible to illustrate the degree of usefulness of this approach with examples from some projects of our company.

Examples of using this approach in a search for prototypes in actual projects.




One of the projects required solving the problem of choosing material for a gastroscope. The requirements to material were as follows – it had to be biologically compatible with the tissues of the patient and not to introduce any new extraneous substances.

Where is the same problem encountered?  The answer is toi be sought for in various fields of medical science. In dentistry, in the field of using artificial valves for the heart muscle. In the field of ophthalmologic diseases we deal with the choice of materials for artificial crystals for the eye. As an  inspection system one could use a picture from the anatomical atlas of the human.

Figure  13. Search for appropriate materials for a gastroscope through the approach “Where does a similar problem exist?”






With such statement of the problem, several appropriate materials were found for a bendable part of the gastroscope. Silicons for contraceptives, plastic substances for manufacturing soft lenses intended for correcting eyesight and materials of quickly solidifying cements for aquariums and terrariums. Time expenditures on search for material using Disadvantage Oriented Search (DOS)  amounted to 1 hour.

Figure 14. Results of using the approach результатыпримененияподхода “Where does a similar problem exist?”





Within the same project the approach «Where was there a problem of a similar Disadvantage and how was it solved?” also appeared to be useful and not once.   

Figure Х presents the logics of obtaining an idea concerning the increase of convenience for a doctor, who uses a gastroscope.

Figure 15. The problem of a gastroscope – excessive number of operations performed with a left hand.





 The above figure contains several slides from the final presentation. The first slide in the upper left corner reflects the problem of weariness of the left hand, which the doctor experiences while examining the patient. The right upper slide and the left lower slide following it show, in which areas of technology the problem of controllability of devices was solved. The first example is taken from the history of musical instruments, where the problem of controllability was solved due to introduction of additional pedals for controlling sound. The second example is from the history of computers, when the conception of computer mouse was invented. The closing picture in the right lower corner shows a new approach to changing the spatial-and-planning solution of gastroscopes of new generation.

 By the way, as a result of performing this project the customer got 20 directions for circumvention of patents of the Japanese company  “Olympus”, which is a trend-setter at the market of medical gastroscopes.  


One more project, in which the approach of searching for analogies through a similar Disadvantage was useful alongside with the application of other tools.

Drying the glasses of mobile phones using a conveyer. The goal of the project was to decrease the time for drying glasses two times. The glasses were dried using a system, which the customer called “air khife”. Ten nozzles under great pressure blew drops of water from the surface.

Figure16. Application of the approach, in which “a similar problem exists” in the project dealing with the drying of glasses.





As part of this project (14)  the customer was given 18 variants for solving the problem of reducing time for drying glasses of mobile phones on a conveyer. The customer selected the simplest of the identified solutions as a basic idea for implementation – to turn the glasses by 90 degrees and to provide for 2-fold decrease of the travel of the drop being eliminated without changing anything in the conveyer design. This does not make the advantages of FOS or Disadvantage Oriented Search (DOS) less prominent. In each project it is necessary to furnish a large number ideas prior to verification, since the performer of the project cannot know everything about the resources of the customer, and sometimes the most unusual, though truthful idea could strongly interest them.

Additional system of trainings sessions aimed at recognition of disadvantages.

The freshmen usually encounter serious difficulties while studying certain disciplines related to innovation consulting. For example, while creating function models.

The trainees have no preparation in the field of analysis, in terms of recognizing not only latent disadvantages, but also trivial ones, which exist absolutely in every system.

In order to enhance the quality of training in the field of function analysis, the following experiment was performed in our company.

Based on the diagram of disadvantages (DOS) a special kind of training sessions was created, which improved the quality of training.

The trainee was given a picture with a prototype and invented new product, in order to answer the question: which Disadvantage or Disadvantages were the reason for inventing this particular solution?

 A short fragment from this kind of exercises is given below. As the experience shows, it is easier for the trainee not to miss an important Disadvantage in the system being described, if he has a list of typical disadvantages in front of him, which could be found in his system as well.

Figure 17. 50 exercises for recognizing disadvantages prior to creation of function model.


Note concerning the Diagram of disadvantages and the second option of this diagram – targeted address to the most plausible trend.

This kind of exercises implies the use of a full version of the Disadvantages Diagram, in which every cell contains three recommended trends for obtainment of efficient solutions, which are associated with the elimination of the disadvantage being described. 

In the present work the authors place the emphasis upon the first version of this software product  – collection of examples of how particularly this Disadvantage was eliminated in fairly different fields of industry.

Soft keys with the pictograms of recommended trends are also active and would direct you to typical  examples of using these trends irrespective of the contest of the Disadvantage.

The selection of recommended disadvantages was made based on the empirical experience of several experienced solvers who had been working in this field for quite a long time. The total number of projects analyzed for the purpose of forming this set of recommendation and introducing them in the form of soft keys amounted approximately to 500-600. The selection is not representative, however, sufficient enough for supporting the process of generation of ideas in quite an efficient way.   

The second type of training exercises using a classification system of Disadvantages recommends the user to perform quick scanning of available disadvantages, using 6 directions of Internet-search for existing solutions as a navigation system.

The benchmarking stage was performed using the frame “Trends of engineering evolution” and this is not the only way of collecting information in Internet concerning the problems of the system being inspected. An example of such a training session could be found in the course developed by the company Gen3 Korea.

One can try to find actual Disadvantages, which are found within the system, by simple enumeration of 36 typical and popular disadvantages.

Thus, one can identify at least 10 actual disadvantages with an ordinary pencil prior to creating a functional model.

 One of such training exercises, based on an example of studying the disadvantages of a pencil, is given below.


Figure 18. Inspecting the actual disadvantages of the marketable goods being inspected.   

Prior to creation of a functional model of the project we inspected the actual disadvantages of the pencil and identified the solutions, which already exist at the market, in order not to invent them for the second time. The idea of enumerating different variants (options) in the traditions of classical heritage of TRIZ is rather alien, however, nothing stands still and TRIZ, as any other discipline became able to absorb also the methodology of morphological analysis.  

The use of enumeration of typical disadvantages in this case is oriented at a tendency to quickly render to the user the knowledge of existing typical disadvantages in engineering and from the standpoint of these interests this idea is absolutely justified.



1. Disadvantage Oriented Search (DOS) as an approach is in no way different from FOS (Function Oriented Search) and makes a perfect addition to it in practice of implementing the innovative projects.

2. The advantages of this prototype-searching method are similar to the advantages of FOS. In this case it is possible not to doubt the workability of the prototype, since it was obtained not from the patent zone, but from the area of actually existing technologies.

3. The development of habits for recognizing similar disadvantages is both useful and possible.

4. Theabilitytoseedisadvantagesisveryusefulincreatingfunctionalmodels. In this case the quality of the models gets enhanced. It is known that the freshman neglects important harmful functions and thus looses part of possible solutions. Special additional training exercises were developed by our company for recognizing disadvantages in proposed objects.

5. In order to attain the goal in training these habits with starting solvers, it is quite possible to use both the developed classification scheme of disadvantages and the database for doing exercises by enriching this database with new data. Unfortunately, we haven’t got any statistical data reflecting the enhancement of abilities of our students as a result of using this kind of training. The authors relate the obtainment of these data to future periods of time and to next stages of development of this methodology and of implementing these data into training practice in the form of a software product, not only in the form of paper media, which exist today.


Reference sources used:

  1.  Gilford tests for measuring creativity

  1.  Torrents tests for measuring creativity



  1. S.Litvin, A.Liubomirsky, I.Sigalovskaya “Glossary to methodology G3:ID”

  1. G. Altshuller “Trends of Engineering systems Evolution” (1)
  2. V.Petrov. “Trends of Engineering systems Evolution”Учебник_TRIZ/Законы_развития_технических_систем
  3. B.Zlotin, A.Zousman.Regularities in the operating principles of engineering systems
  4. A.Liubomirsky, S.Litvin  “Trends of Engineering systems Evolution” .
  5. Yu. Salamatov. “system of Trends of Engineering Evolution” (fundamentals of theory of engineering systems evolution)”
  6. T.A. Kengerly. Transfer of engineering solutions in inventive creative activity.

  1.  S.Litvin. «New TRIZ-based Tool – Function-Oriented Search». ETRIA Conference TRIZ Future 2004. November 2-5, 2004, Florence, Italy

  1.  A.Ya. Khimiuk. FunctionOrientedInformationSearch  


S.A. Kolchanov, Russia, M.S.Rubin, Russia, Eu.L. Sockolov, Russia       

  1. Yu.Danilovsky, V.Lenyashin

      Ancient Game "Harmful Machine" Y.Danilovsky, V.Lenyashin

     also see

  1. Description of the projects of 2010
  2.  Definition of “Creativity” from Wickipedia
  3. Yu.Danilovsky “How the Profession of TRIZ Expert was formed”


     17. Value Engineering Analysis